Arabic Language Skills For Non Arabs
MODERN WAYS OF LEARNING THE ARABIC LANGUAGE FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS
فيديو لكتاب الروضة
Videofor Electronic Book
فيديو للكتاب التمهيدي 1
Videofor Electronic Book
فيديو كتاب المبتدئين 1
Video Elementary Book 1
This approach is based on the method of programmed instruction, develops self-learning and supports it by effective use of electronic media; It can be taught in the classrooms, language laboratories, or homes. It also uses among others, the learning books and electronic applications (CDs), and using audio-oral method, concerning communicative approaches, depending on the educational units in its design. It introduces a newly method for teaching Arabic for beginners using computers in order to learn Arabic language skills from the beginning in a balanced way, including skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. This approach cultivates the seeds of literary tasting through psalms and songs in a gradual in effortless manner and facilitates the link to the subject of the lesson. The approach takes the advantages of modern technical means and appropriate ways to present scientific material in an interesting way and gives the teacher the opportunity to devote him/herself for the efforts of supervision and follow-up.
The following is an exposure of how to teach these books and programs for junior tudents:
Lesson One: (oral entrance)
Each unit begins with oral entrance and can be extended and lengthened in order to benefit from the skills of the rest of the units, each entrance receives what the student has learned in previous unit and upgrades the student skills and climbing with him/her in new conversations, thus, the student learns new skill in each unit, including rehearsal of the earlier units and this paves the skills to come in the current unit. Among all entries in the units, it learns student the skills required at each level, the dialogues is varied in all oral entrances among students with the using of pictures, to emphasize the difference between masculine and feminine pronouns in the dialogue, and as the student learning a new dialogue it must be added to the old dialogue. The teacher must realize that repetition is very important in language teaching as a foreign language, however, teacher must prevent the boredom that creeps into the hearts of students through the using of various teaching methods and its ways whenever it is possible. And being in mind, as the teacher lengthening the dialogue with the student as the student has gained confidence in and enabled him/her to the mastery of language mechanism to student’s and mind. Using the functional vocabulary and its diversification enabled students to achieve the mechanism of dialogue and discussion from the early days, and encourages communication between the teacher and his/her students, as well as among students themselves.
In the following we show how to teach the functional vocabulary, and how to employ it orally and in writing.
Lesson Two: (functional vocabulary and uses it orally)
The words depicted in the functional vocabulary makes it easier for the teacher to introduce it orally to the students, make them used to hear functional vocabulary in different situations with changeable mechanisms, by the help of oral question about it using pronouns like: this, that, does, and so. Or according to the instructions with each group of words, and the teacher does not need to translate the vocabulary because the image reflects the intended meaning.
Lesson Three: (employment the vocabulary in writing)
After the transition from the oral phase in the entrance at the introduction and in the oral vocabulary of functional at lesson one, the instructor moves to employ whatever the student has learned to utilize it skillfully with a focus on the skill of writing by ordering students first to answer questions in the book. After the answer, the students practice to answer all the exercise orally, the teacher reads the question and ordered the student to answer orally, being in mind, the alteration of students, and then the teacher asks every two students to stimulate the dialogue, one student asks and the other answers, and teacher must say in the process: exchange the dialogue with your partner. And when the teacher sees that the students have finished, he/she should make sure to switch between who asks and who answers. The teacher has to choose student from the front of the class and those from the back, then ask them to exchange the questions and answers in order to hear all of the students well, and in the same way he/she can complete the rest of the exercises.
The abundance of concentration, listening and the repetition of the single words help students on memorization in indirectly and creates an intimacy to the Arab sounds at the same time. This is what we will need when learning reading and writing later. A student who has not heard a word from before do not feel comfortable when reads it, but may not be able to read as well as to write it or use it. Hence we see the necessity of introducing the oral entrance first, and then following the listening skill and familiarity toward the vocabulary through artificial means which lead to achieve the desired objectives in future; then comes grammatical employment of the words under study, so student would consist with single words when placed within the sentence. The case is different when the student listens to single word from hearing same word within a sentence, the mechanism of grammatical function must be gradual, according to student learning level of the oral mechanisms, or say, dialogic as it was previously in the oral entrance, and the mechanism will be as follows.
Lesson Four: (functional Grammar)
The term functional grammar is a set of rules that lead to the basic function of grammar; functional grammar adjusts the written words and the system of authorship sentences in order to save the tongue of error in pronunciation, it keeps away the pen for the error in writing. The beginner student in Arabic language concerned with Arabic grammar for its role in the integrity of his/her language, the integrity of the tongue and to eliminate the melody and error, and making the mechanism of language which we are pay a great interest in this book to it.
In the beginning, the non-Arabic student needs from Arabic grammar whatever can help him/her to move between the masculinity and feminine pronouns, when the student can add some of consciences of property, to the extent that does not make the student feel the need to know the grammatical terms, and without the incursion in the extensive explanation, but with automatic method in which the student does not need to ask about reason. To create a grammatical mechanism by frequency and repetition, most of the grammatical exercises is functional and need the student to answer first, after the teacher having reviewed it; he/she has to conduct it orally, and as happened in the function of vocabulary.
Lesson Five: (listening skill)
The student who learns a foreign language may find difficulty to capture the audio and understanding, it seems to him/her that the talk is a reasonable speed, but the training models trained student to listen and familiarize him/herself by distinguishing words in sentences with its normal pronunciation, and move the language movement from the conscious sense to unconscious sense, while linking the meaning of the word with the same sound without the need for translation.
The mechanism of listening skill at the junior trainees depends on the correct pronunciation of the letters, student distinguishes among the letters when he/she listens to them with the symmetric words, this will be find in the pronunciation exercises of Arabic sounds that may represent the difficulty for non-Arab, training of new words by listening, differentiate between it and the other listening and spoken, and training to pick up the words and recognizing it within sentences or dialogues. This mechanism does not grow up in the student through the training in other skills only, but the teacher can nurture this skill in a special lesson, call it listening lesson, the first objective is to train the ear to the correct listening with understanding of what student listens, and then to be training through the images in the first level without resorting to translation.
Lesson Six: (speaking skill)
This approach teaches speaking skill from the first day the student begins to study Arabic, this will be undertaken through the entrance of the oral speech which the student learns speaking skill by means direct oral interviews and employment that accept the extension and prolongation, such that single word should be employed to serve the skill of speaking in sentences and dialogues in order to implant in the mind of the student. A functional grammar is a mean of mechanism that extends the dialogue through the mechanisms of grammar. In fact, the junior student studies every word and sentence should be motivated to speak more, and the teacher can almost see the progress of student during his/her study of this book, the student cannot stop him/herself from speaking only when he/she is used the pen in the answer. Even at the moment of writing, the student tongue does not stopped to speak during the writing, if possible? Thus, all the skills service the speaking skill.
Speaking skill helps students fluency in speech, and the included exercises in the skill of speaking is not a repeat of what is in the functional vocabulary and function grammar only, but it is exercises to start to speak, and can be done in the same way we employ the vocabulary and the functional grammar. With a focus on starting to speak to each other among themselves, the teacher tries to cultivate the love of speaking Arabic in the hearts of the students, the most important benefits of patterns exercises is making the student feels of easiness of Arabic language and its mechanism, and this is what we would like, and to make the student feel in the beginning.
Lesson Seven: (Speaking Skills)
It has been noted that the language skills is overlapping, so when the student learns the pronunciation, he/she learns how to read also, when the student learns a dialogue he/she read this dialogue easily, which he/she memorize before reading, the Word that is repeated by the student often, he/she feels easy to read, and the difficulty of reading such word comes from the lack of familiarity with, or ignorance of its meaning. From the first day of the course, the teacher should make the student familiar with listening to a fair amount of new words, this, in return, will facilitate reading and writing skills, because the student who is accustomed to listen the word and see it in the past will feel easy to read, and this will increase the analysis of the word based on its origins. Then the teacher has to teach the student Arabic Alphabet, this method of teaching reading is called holistic approach, and in this method, teacher learns the student the words and sentences completely before analysis them to its origins.
We have seen that the holistic approach is the most successful in teaching Arabic to non-Arab, because the student with this method does not waste time in learning the letters which have no meaning, but grasp the words which have meaning, then, after that, the teacher tells the student that the word was originally composed of letters and that will be useful for him/her. Then the student gradually from reading single word and learning its meaning through his/her reading, student has to read the complete sentences in order to increase his/her linguistic wealth, through exercises of identifying the words and distinguishing them, the word will be integrated with all its letters, the eye of student is able to deduct the difference between and among letters, the last training exercise in the skill of reading is a meaningful commend contains a summary of what was studied in the unit of the goals and ideas in order to memorize and repeat it by the student, so he/she can exceed his/her skill, and make the student feel the beauty of language and the necessity to learn it.
Lesson Eight: (Writing Skill)
What we said about the reading skill that is overlaps with other skills is true with the skill of writing also, the mechanism for writing must be brought up in the student's mind from the first day, the student feels psychologically comfortable when he/she writes such word as learned it, and the student feels safe from losing the word, as writing saves the knowledge from loss. As the training to write is starting gradually at the level of pre-writing, but through existing and useful forms the writing skill makes the mechanism of writing and employs it usefully, and not just as an order the student to draw lines and curves without having a benefit from it. After the growing of writing skill, the student will feel that the mechanism of writing has matured in giving answers to writing exercises in student’s exercises of writing skills, in the beginning. The exercises are supposed to be passed on the words and phrases that students see in a light fond, this will make student familiar with what to be written. We know that when the student presses the pen and writes the word, the pen engraved the drawing of the word in his/her mind, for that, word does not leave the mind of the student, and writing reinforces information and establishes it in the mind.
After long student’s tour in the skills of the unit, the focus and shorten of the structures and patterns which the student learnt, the role of the shortcut will be well known in the arranging of ideas in the mind of that student. It is well known the role of the shortcut in the arranging of ideas in the mind of the student, the summary of the patterns and structures is suggest to the student that the language which is not infinite can be summarized its structures and patterns, the patterns are arranged in a way to accept the learning, reviewing, and accept the reproduction and the increasing also, and when the student sees his/her Linguistic outcomes is not limited he/she will feel confident in him/herself. The summarized of functional vocabulary is separating from names and characters from the verbs in order to cultivate in student’s mind -since the beginning and without making him/her feel that the Arabic language is divided into names, characters, and verbs, and this is important in the future. The student can write the meaning in his/her own language in his/her own dictionary, writing must be in the manner that we have proposed in the summary of the vocabulary, but we do not recommend student to write such personal translation in the book through the process of learning the skills.
This program measures the achievement of the student, it is characterized by its immediate response to student’s answer, gives the student the degree which he/she obtained directly. The goal of this test is also an educational instruction, so the student who did not understand very well what he/she has learned, he/she can resume his/her learning, and he/she can repeat the test until he/she is sure of his/her proficiency of linguistic skills learned throughout the program.
The questions is varied in order to include all of the proposed program, the questions of listening and reading are dominating, the advantage of the electronic test is to guide the student to his/her real level, and this program pushes the student to learn over and over again until he/she is sure of his/her proficiency for the content of the program. The program has an immediate response to the student, and does not need to wait until the teacher corrects the exam and inform the student about the result. When the student when is doing this test, he/she does not need to worry or be disturbed, he/she will know his/her outcome without fear of the others’ blame, there is no worry of the success or failure, and as a result of the test which the student will be greeted with sporty spirit and do not put him/her in the awkward position.
Hymns and songs
The Arabic literature is an expression of the emotion or the magic of nature, in the manner that raised a jolt of the beauty of photography, magnificence of the expression, and the splendor fantasy in the spirit of the reader or listener, and literature has a pleasure and joy in the self and able to enter the delight to the self. When the teacher teaches the Arabic language for non-Arabic speakers beginners, he/she has to cultivate in the student’s spirit the beautiful literary language in gradually manner, as for the beginner student, the cultivation of the beauty of literary language can only be achieved when the student croons and sings the beautiful, soft, and easy hymns in the beginning.
The student sees the simplicity of the poetic language with the manner which is commensurate with his/her level and what he/she learns, enters joy his/her heart, regale his/her ear, stems his/her tongue to echoing and singing, refines his/her morals, expands his/her imagination circle, feels pleasure when he sees him/herself understanding and connoisseur of the meanings of these Hymns, and songs are composed and singing by artistry method that fit the universal taste and endure Arabic culture to non-Arabic speakers.
Methods of Hymns Memorization
Teaching of Arabic Hhymns for the Beginners of Non-Arabic Speakers:
1. Firstly, the teacher reads the hymns ordinary, he/she in this ordinary reading can repeated the hymn once or twice to prepare students to the proper pronunciation and the art of presentation, then discusses the students’ understanding of the hymn, and gave them a general idea about the general meaning of it.
2. Secondly, the teacher reads the anthem poetry reading to students, ask them to repeating behind him, and then ask them to read, and see if they were a fluent in reading.
3. Thirdly, Teacher opens the computer to make the students listen to the anthem, composer and sound Arabic authentic voices, asked the students to repeat with the anthem, encourage them to control the rhythm, and with repetition students will accommodate the anthem, memorized it and will fluently in their performance alone.
4. Fourthly, the teacher left his/her students to sing alone until they are fluent in its composing and singing, so they can memorize it without tiredness, and either in the class or to memorize it composer in the home.
5. Fifthly, when the teacher is sure that the students interact with the song, and he/she should open the music to them alone, leaving them singing and composing on their own.
Computer has provided us with new capabilities; we can use them to facilitate the students’ memorization without affectation, when students view the anthem with the music, the program displays the full anthem at the top of page, then expose the poetic stanza that student will sing it at a special bar at the bottom, with shading the word that student sings with its melody, and so on until the end of anthem. After the completion of exposition of the composer anthem offering by voice of the singer, without the music on the same time, once the student finished the hearing of the anthem, the anthem will be exposed written by composer, without a voice, the voice of the student will be the alternative to the voice of the singer, It is not obvious the impact of that on the beginner student who reads and sings, sees him/herself has sufficient singing voice such singing of Arab, How are the joyful of the student after he/she memorizing and singing the anthem by him/herself, and using the music that provided by a computer timely with the tape.
The student can play these games alone or in front of the class using the computer, students watch him/her through the monitor, may assist him/her to remember the correct answer, these games raise the spirit of fun and humor, the teacher can run this game among the groups of students, and calculate the time and determines the winners among the students.
Ustazah. Ferdous Ahmed Gad